學術指導：楊鳴宇教授(澳門大學 社會科學學院 政府與行政學系 助理教授,本會學術顧問)
學術指導：尹偉文教授(澳門大學 社會科學學院 政府與行政學系 助理教授)
Committee: Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM)
Topic: Addressing population ageing and cultivating ageing-friendly society
Academic Adviser: Dr. Dennis Tam (President of the Supervisory Council, Geography and
Education Research Association of Macau, Academic Adviser of MMUNPA)
Delegations: 45 seats, Single Delegation
Working language: English (British English)
According to UN standards, population ageing is often referred to the increasing proportion of older adults, people who age over 60 in the population. This demographic shift is occurring worldwide and is possibly driven by declining fertility rates and increased life expectancy. The growing size of the old-age community has led to the snowballing need to facilitate the establishment of an ageing-friendly society.
Factors such as health, long-term care, transport, housing, labour, social protection, information and communication are crucial to building a supportive environment to empower healthy, active and independent living for the older adults, as stated by the UN. Some have also suggested that addressing ageism and promoting intergenerational connections could be feasible means to achieve the goal. Promoting an ageing-friendly society requires a concerted contribution from governments, organisations and individuals to address the upcoming challenges. The SOCHUM adopted the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing early in 2002, aiming to promote the well-being and rights of older persons through creating an enabling environment, and to provide a framework for action at national, regional, and international levels. Moreover, in alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organisation (WHO) has taken up a significant role in the ‘UN Decade of Healthy Ageing’, where the organisation called for four ‘enablers’, voice and meaningful engagement, leadership and capacity building, connecting stakeholders and strengthening data, research and innovation in order to shift the status quo. That said, the efforts made by the public vary from country to country and they often lack coordinance.
The Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM), otherwise known as the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, is one of the six primary committees of the UN General Assembly. Founded in 1946, the Committee strives to uphold and safeguard fundamental human rights for all individuals, irrespective of their race, gender, religion, or nationality. In particular, the Committee has extensively discussed social, humanitarian, and cultural concerns related to older adults, with the aim of ensuring them being able to enjoy their human rights and live with dignity and respect. Delegates are expected to represent their respective countries with different socioeconomic and political backgrounds and craft an innovative plan for creating a society that is conducive and inclusive to ageing.
Committee: Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)
Topic: Protection of women’s rights, dressing freedom, and empowerment
Academic Adviser: Prof. Melody Chia- Wen Lu (Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, the
University of Macau, Academic Adviser of MMUNPA)
Delegations: 25 seats, Single Delegation
Working language: English (British English)
Throughout history, women have always been treated unequally. In this modern era, several enhancements regarding the status of women have been achieved. Women’s suffrage is one of the remarkable developments. Although the situation has improved, some countries limit the voting rights of both males and females equally. In fact, having the legal right to vote does not necessarily guarantee a realistic opportunity to vote. The right of women to vote is more than political, which concerns the nature and structure of society. Every citizen shall have the right to participate in public affairs and voting rights.
Besides women’s suffrage, the right of receiving education is essential to women. Access to education is recognised as a fundamental right. However, barriers to women’s education such as poverty, child marriage and sexual abuse, lead to an imbalance in education in some countries. Such inequality is regarded as the major impediment within the course of the overall development of the education system, in which women are provided with fewer participation opportunities as compared to their male counterparts. The right to receive education is essential, making provision for equal rights and opportunities for women, not only within the course of the acquisition of education, but also in the pathway of gender equality.
Legal clothing restrictions on women have been a serious concern in the process of women’s rights enhancement. Dress codes are often based on gender roles and stereotypes about women. Sometimes, these dress codes are simply social expectations from others. However, dress codes can also be codified in the law. These laws dictate what women can wear to school, work, and sometimes in all public places. In different countries, these laws might force women to wear more or less clothing than they are comfortable wearing.
Women also have the freedom of giving birth, as known as reproductive rights, refers to the ability to choose the number of children they have, as well as the spacing between children’s birth. It includes prenatal services, safe childbirth, access to contraception, as well as abortion. Despite the ethics of abortion, it is still essential for females’ right of giving birth. In order to achieve the right of giving birth, sexual and reproductive health should be enhanced and the right to healthcare for females should also be improved along with the right of giving birth.
More and more women are dedicated to work nowadays. In the workplace, millions of female workers are compelled to work in degrading, hostile, or threatening settings where they frequently engage in inappropriate sexual behaviour. They are subjected to unwelcome physical contact, inappropriate jokes, insinuations, and statements that can be considered assault. Sexual harassment at work continues to go unreported despite its widespread prevalence for a variety of reasons, including fear of ridicule, blame, social or professional reprisals, and loss of legal residency.
Not only horrible conditions exist in the workplace for women, but there is also unfair treatment related to the company’s policy or salary. According to the United Nations, women only get paid 77 cents while men get paid one dollar for the same amount of work. Women’s work is often undervalued and remunerated less, causing them to retire into poverty. The so-called ‘motherhood penalty’, which forces women into the informal sector, casual employment, and part-time employment, is more prevalent in developing nations than it is in industrialised nations.